Introduction & General Bibliography


Ahmed, Feroz, Ethnicity and Politics in Pakistan, Karachi, 1999.

Ahsan, Aitzaz, The Indus Saga and the Making of Pakistan, Karachi, 1997.

Ali, Mubarak, In the Shadow of History, Lahore, 1998.

Anam, Tahmima, A Golden Age, London, 2007.

Aslam, Talat, ‘“The water agreement is really a con job” – Arif Hasan’, in The Herald, Karachi, April 1991.

Astill, James, A survey of Pakistan [Economist Special Report], London, 6 July 2006.

Bennett Jones, Owen, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm, New Haven/London, 2002.

Burney, I.H., No Illusions, Some Hopes and No Fears: The Outlook Editorials of IH Burney 1962-4; 1972-4, Karachi, 1996.

Collins, Larry & Dominique Lapierre, Mountbatten and the Partition of India: Volume 1: March 22-August 15, 1947, Delhi, 1982.

Daniel, Lynn, ed., South Asia 2004, London, 2003.

Dawn, Karachi.

Dawood, N.J., The Koran, tr., London, 2003 [1956].

Duncan, Emma, Breaking the Curfew: a political journey through Pakistan, London, 1989.

Faiz, Faiz Ahmed, Poems by Faiz, tr. V.G. Kiernan, New Delhi, 2004 [1971].

Herald, Karachi.

Jahangir, Asma & Mehro Siddiqui, From Protection to Exploitation (the laws against blasphemy in Pakistan), Lahore, [n.d. c. 2003?].

Keay, John, India: a history, London, 2000.

Lamb, Christina, Waiting for Allah: Pakistan’s struggle for democracy, London, 1991.

Lévy, Bernard-Henri, Who Killed Daniel Pearl?, Hoboken (NJ), 2003.

Mahmood, M., The Major Acts: With lots of improvements, case law rearranged under appropriate headings and sub-headings, Lahore, 2001.

Mishra, Pankaj, Temptations of the West: How to be Modern in India, Pakistan, Tibet and beyond, New York, 2006.

Naipaul, V.S., Among the Believers: an Islamic journey, London, 1981;
Beyond Belief: Islamic excursions among the converted peoples, London, 1998.

Newsline, Karachi.

Quraeshi, Samina, Legacy of the Indus: A Discovery of Pakistan, New York, 1974.

Qur’an, The Holy Qur’an, tr. M.H. Shakir, University of Virginia Electronic Text Center, 1997: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/koran.html

Rashid, Salman, Riders on the Wind: Travels Through Pakistan, Lahore, 1992.

Rushdie, Salman, Shame, London, 1983.

Said, Edward, Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World, New York, 1997 [1981].

Shah, Hassam Qadir [for Shirkat Gah], There is no ‘honour’ in killing: Don’t let them get away with murder (Booklet on criminal procedures), Basic questions answered, Lahore, 2002.

Shamsie, Kamila, In the city by the sea, London, 1998;
Kartography, London, 2002.

Sharwani, Iftikar, Women and Quranic Injunctions, Lahore, 2003.

Talbot, Ian, Pakistan: A Modern History, London, 1998.

The Guardian, London.

Weaver, Mary-Anne, Pakistan: In the Shadow of Jihad and Afghanistan, New York, 2002.

Ziring, Lawrence, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History, Karachi, 1997.



Chapter One


Afzal, M. Rafique, ed., Selected Speeches and Statements of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah [1911-34 and 1947-48], Lahore, 1976 [1966].

Anand, Subhadra, National Integration of Sindhis, New Delhi, 1996.

Aitken, E.A., Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, Karachi, 1907.

Baillie, Alexander, Kurrachee: Past, Present and Future, Calcutta, 1890.

Bolitho, Hector, Jinnah: Creator of Pakistan, London, 1954.

Bryant, Edwin, The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate,
Oxford/New York, 2001.

Burton, Richard, Scinde: Or the Unhappy Valley, London, 1851;
Sind Revisited: With Notices of the Anglo-Indian Army; Railroads; Part, Present, and Future, Etc., London, 1877.

Cheesman, David, ‘The Omnipresent Bania: Rural Moneylenders in Nineteenth-Century Sind’, Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge, 1982 (XVI:3).

Collins, Larry & Dominique Lapierre, Mountbatten and the Partition of India: Volume 1: March 22-August 15, 1947, Delhi, 1982.

Dawn, founded by M.A. Jinnah, New Delhi (later Karachi), 1946-

Feldman, Herbert, Karachi through a Hundred Years: The Centenary History of the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry 1860-1960, Karachi, 1960.

Defence Journal, Karachi, http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/mar/wagah.htm

Guha, Ramachandra, ‘Could Partition have been made less bloody?’, in The Hindu: Magazine, Chennai, 28/08/2005.

Hotchand, Seth Naomal, A forgotten chapter of Indian history as described in the memoirs of Seth Naomal Hotchand, Karachi, 1982 [1915].

Haleem, Muhammad Abdel, Understanding the Qur’an: Themes and Style, London, 1999.

Hasan, Arif, ‘A Pedestrian’s Saddar’ in The Herald, July 1986;
‘Karachi’s Disappearing Troughs’ in The Herald, September 1986;
‘The Changing Face of Karachi: Special Report’ in The Herald, Karachi, February 1993;
Understanding Karachi: Planning and Reform for the Future, Karachi, 1999;
‘The changing nature of the informal sector in Karachi as a result of global restructuring and liberalization’ in Environment & Urbanization, London, April 2002 (XIV:1, pp.69-78).

Hasan, Mushirul, ed., India Partitioned: The Other Face of Freedom, New Delhi, 1995; ‘The Partition Debate – II’ in The Hindu, Chennai, 3/01/2002.

Hughes, A.W., A Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh, London, 1874.

Hyder, S., Progress of Pakistan, Lahore, 1947.

India, [Republic of], Report of the Bengal Boundary Commission, Report of the Punjab Boundary Commission, New Delhi, 1947.

Jalal, Ayesha & Anil Seal, ‘Alternative to Partition: Muslim Politics Between the Wars’, Modern Asian Studies, 1981 (XV:3);
The Sole Spokesman, Cambridge, 1985.

Jinnah, M.A., Speeches and Statements 1947 – 1948, Karachi, 2000.

Jotwani, Motilal, Sufis of Sindh, Delhi, 1986.

Khan, Adeel, Politics of Identity: Ethnic Nationalism and the State in Pakistan, New Delhi/London, 2005.

Khuhro, Hamida, Sind Through the Centuries, Karachi, 1981;
Mohammed Ayub Khuhro: A Life of Courage in Politics, Lahore, 1998a.

Kirpalani, S.K., Fifty Years with the British, London, 1993.

Lari, Yasmeen & Mihail S., The Dual City: Karachi During the Raj, Karachi, 1996.

Lawrence, Bruce, The Qur’an: A Biography, London, 2006.

Mansergh, Nicholas, ed., Transfer of Power: The Mountbatten Viceroyalty, London, 1982.

Manto, Sa‘adat Hasan, For Freedom’s Sake: Selected Stories and Sketches, Karachi, 2001.

Markovits, Claude, The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947. Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama, Cambridge, 2000.

Maududi, S. Abul A’la, Fundamentals of Islam, Lahore, 2002 [first English edition 1974].

Menon, V.P., The Transfer of Power in India, Delhi, 1979 [1957].

Merz Rendel Vatten (Pakistan), Report on Greater Karachi Plan, Stockholm, 1952.

Michel, Aloys, The Indus Rivers: A Study of the Effects of Partition, New Haven/London, 1967.

Moon, Penderel, Wavell: The Viceroy’s Journal, London, 1973; Divide and Quit: An Eyewitness Account of the Partition of India, Delhi, 1998. [1961].

Mosley, Leonard, The Last Days of the British Raj, London, 1962.

Mountbatten, Louis, ‘Viceroy’s Personal Report No.17. Plus Appendix I: Summary of the Award of the Punjab and Bengal Boundary Commission and the Radcliffe Report’, 16th August 1947, [Listowel Collection, India Office Records, British Library: L/PO/6/123].

Nehru, Jawaharlal, Jawaharlal Nehru’s Speeches: September 1946-May 1949, Delhi, 1958 [1949]; Toward Freedom, New York, 1961.

Orangi Pilot Project, ‘Karachi map showing documented Natural Nalas & Drains’, Karachi, 2004a;
‘Orangi Pilot Project Institutions and Programs: 99th Quarterly Report’, July-September 2004b;
‘Orangi Pilot Project – Research & Training Institute (OPP-RTI) Update, November 2004c.

Pakistan, Islamic Republic of, ‘Essential Personnel (Registration) Ordinance 1948’, Gazette of Pakistan, Karachi, 1948;
District Census Report: Karachi Central, Karachi, 1998.

Pandey, Deepak, ‘Congress-Muslim League Relations 1937-39; The Parting of the Ways’, in Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge, 1978 (XII: 4).

Pandey, Gyanendra, ‘India and Pakistan, 1947-2002: Statistics and Their Meaning’ in Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, 16/03/2002 (XXXVII:11), http://www.sacw.net/partition/gpandey2002.html.

Prakasa, Sri, Pakistan: Birth and Early Days, Meerut/Delhi, 1965.

Qureshi, Saleem, Jinnah the Founder of Pakistan, Karachi, 1998.

Rahman, Perween, Katchi Abadis of Karachi: A survey of 334 katchi abadis; existing situation, problems and solutions related to sewage disposal, water supply, health and education, Karachi, 2004.

Raipuri, Hameeda Akhtar Husain, My Fellow Traveller, Karachi, 2006.

Rodinson, Maxime, Mohammed, tr. Anne Carter, London, 1971.

Sarkar, Sumit, Modern India: 1885-1947, Delhi, 1985 [1983].

Schimmel, Annemarie, Pearls from the Indus, Jamshoro (Pakistan), 1986.

Shaikh, Farzana, ‘Muslims and Political Representation in Colonial India: The Making of Pakistan’, in Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge, 1986 (XX: 3).

Shamsie, Muneeza, ed., Leaving Home, Karachi, 2001.

Sharma, M.S.M., Peeps into Pakistan, Patna, 1954.

Sher, Karamat, ‘Neighbourhood: Indo-Pak Relations’ [self-published pamphlet], tr. A.F. Chaudhry, Karachi, n.d.

Siddiqui, Ahmed Husain, Karachi: The Pearl of the Arabian Sea, Karachi, 1996.

Streefland, Pieter, The Sweepers of Slaughterhouse: Conflict and Survival in a Karachi Neighbourhood, Assen, The Netherlands, 1979.

Suleri, Ziauddin Ahmad, Whither Pakistan?, London, 1949.

The Times, London, 13/09/1948 [Obituary of M.A. Jinnah].

Urban Resource Centre, Karachi: www.urckarachi.org

Verkaaik, Oskar, A People of Migrants: Ethnicity, State and Religion in Karachi, Amsterdam, 1994.

Wolpert, Stanley, Jinnah of Pakistan, New York/Oxford, 1984.

Zafar, M.D., Pakistan Studies: For F.A. F.S.C. & Commerce, Lahore, 1987.

Zaidi, Z.H., ed., Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah Papers, Islamabad, 10 vols, 1993-;
Pakistan: Struggling for Survival, 1 January – 30 September 1948 [Jinnah Papers], 2002, (VII).

Ziring, Lawrence, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History, Karachi, 1997.



Chapter Two


Aijazuddin, F.S., Historical Images of Pakistan, Lahore, 1996 [1992].

Ali, Mubarak, The English Factory in Sind: Extracts Regarding Sind from William Foster’s “The English Factories in India”, Jamshoro, Pakistan, 1983.

Ahmed, Muzammil, ‘Animal and Plant Communities of the Present and Former Indus Delta’ in The Indus River: Biodiversity, Resources, Humankind, Azra Meadows and Peter S. Meadows, eds, Karachi, 1999, pp.12-30.

Aitken, E.A., Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, A, 1907, p.142.

Andrew, W.P., The Punjaub Railway. A Selection from the Official Correspondence Regarding the Introduction of Railways into the Punjaub, London, 1857;
On the Establishment of a Flotilla of Steam Vessels, of Improved Construction, on the Indus, in connection with the Scinde and Punjaub Railways, London, 1857;
The Indus and Its Provinces, Their Political and Commercial Importance Considered in Connexion with Improved Means of Communication, London, 1859;
On the completion of the Railway System of the Valley of the Indus: A letter to his Grace the Duke of Argyll (Secretary of State for India in Council), London, 1869.

Anon [by a Bengal Officer], Recollections of the First Campaign West of the Indus, and of the Subsequent Operations of the Candahar Force under Major-General Sir W. Nott, London, 1845.

Anon, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, tr. Wilfred Schoff, New York, 1912.

Anon [by an Indian Officer], The Navigation of the Indus and Railways in Scinde and the Punjaub. A Letter to the Court of Directors of the Honourable East India Company Showing the Impolicy of Granting a Guarantee for the Navigation of the Indus, as Virtually Creating a Monopoly of Such Navigation, London, 1858.

Anon [by an Indian Officer], The Route of the Indus, and the Advance of Russia Towards India: A Letter to W.P.Andrew, Esq... On the Importance of Placing Delhi and Lahore in Railway Communication with Kurrachee on the Arabian Sea, London, 1865.

Arain, Muhammad Rafi & M.Y. Khuhawar, Water Scarcity in Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan), 2004.

Auckland, ‘Minute Books: containing minutes and observations of Lord Auckland based on reports and letters of various committees and political agents’, Calcutta, 1836 [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.37709].

Bablani, Saeed Ahmed & Saeed Ahmed Soomro, ‘Investigation of seawater intrusions in the left bank sediment of southern Sindh’ in Proceedings of the third National Seminar on Drainage in Pakistan, Peshawar, June 2004.

Beddoes, Alexander, On Alexander’s Expedition down the Hydaspes & the Indus to the Indian Ocean, London, 1792.

Bell, Evans, The Oxus and the Indus, London, 1874.

Bellew, Henry, From the Indus to the Tigris, London, 1874.

Bernier, François, Travels in the Mogul Empire AD 1656-1668, tr. Archibald Constable, Delhi, 1934 (rpt 1999).

Boileau, A.H.E., Personal Narrative of a Tour Through the Western States of Rajwara, in 1835; Comprising Beerkaner, Jesulmeer, and Jodhpoor, With the Passage of the Great Desert, and A Brief Visit to the Indus and to Buhawulpoor; Accompanied by Various Tables and Memoranda Statistical, Philological, and Geographical, [Bengal Engineers, First Assistant, Great Trigonometrical Survey], Calcutta, 1837.

Bombay Government, Handbook for Passengers from Bombay to Mooltan, Via Kurrachee, Kotree, and Sukkur, By the Steamers of The Bombay Steam Navigation Company, and Steamers of the Indus Flotilla, Bombay, 1861.

Britain, Government of, Foreign Office: General Correspondence from Political and Other Departments, ‘Indus Waters Dispute’, [National Archives, London: FO 371/92893], 1951;
Dominions Office and Commonwealth Relations Office, ‘Indus Rivers waters dispute and danger of war between India and Pakistan’, [National Archives, London: DO 35/6648], 1952-53.

Burnes, Alexander, ‘The Journal of Alexander Burnes... being a diary of a reconnaissance trip up the River Indus’ [India Office, British Library: MssEurF208/112], 1827;
‘A Memoir and Supplementary Memoir of a Map of the Eastern Branch of the Indus by Lt Alexander Burnes’ [India Office, British Library: MssEurF208/111], 1827-8;
 ‘A Memoir of a Map of the Eastern Branch of the Indus giving an account of the alterations produced in it by the earthquake of 1819... and a paper on the Eunuchs or Pawyuns of Cutch’, [India Office, British Library: MssEurK396-7 (D155)], 1827-9;
‘Portfolio containing the following papers: (1) Memoir on the Indus and Punjab Rivers with cursory remarks on the people, by Lieutenant Alexander Burnes; (2) Extracts from the above (3) Extracts from Burnes’ narrative and journal; (4) Notes on Burnes’ narrative’, [Dalhousie Muniments, National Archives of Scotland: GD45/5/80], 1831;
‘Copies of letter from Captain Burnes to Major-General Ramsay concerning the meeting between Ranjit Singh and the Governor-General at Rupar’, 31 October 1831, ‘With annotated sketches of Ranjit’s tented enclosure at the Sutlej and letter’, 1834, [Dalhousie Muniments, National Archives of Scotland: GD45/5/72], 1831-4;
Travels in Bokhara: Together with  Narrative of A Voyage on the Indus, London, 1834;
 ‘Two letters from Lt-Col Sir Alexander Burnes... (i) dated c.1833 concerning his book Travels in Bokhara... (ii) dated c1840, on the probity of Rahan Dil a merchant of Kabul’, [India Office, British Library: MssEurB256], 1833-40;
Holograph Letter written by Capt. Alexander Burnes, 21st Bombay Native Infantry, from ‘On the Indus above Moultan’ to H.E. John McNeil Minister at the Court of Persia, dated 6th June 1837 [Mss Eur D 1165/2], 1837;
 ‘Letters to McNeil in Persia’, November 1837 - March 1838 [National Archives of Scotland: GD371/138/2], 1837-8a;
‘Copy of letter from Capt. Alexander Burnes to Lord Auckland; copies of despatches from Burnes to William Hay Macnaghten... two replies from latter to Burnes’, 1837-8 [India Office, British Library: MssEurD1165/13], 1837-8b;
1842: Cabool: Being a Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City in the years 1836, 7, and 8, London, 1842.

Burnes, James A Narrative of a Visit to the Court of the Ameers of Sinde, Edinburgh, 1831;
‘Letter by James Burnes on the death of his brother’, [Wellesley Papers, European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.37313, Series II, Volume XL], 1842;
Correspondence with Lord Palmerston, London, 1861.

Burton, Richard & J.E. Stocks, ‘Brief notes relative to the division of time, and articles of cultivation in Sind... and remarks on the modes of intoxication in that province’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: Fiche no. 1069], 1848;
‘Notes relative to the population of Sind; and the customs, language, and literature of the people etc.’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: Fiche no.1069-70], 1848;
Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus: with notices of the topography and history of the province, London, 1851;
Falconry in the Valley of the Indus, London, 1852;

Carless, T.G., ‘Memoir on the delta of the Indus’ and ‘Report upon portions of the River Indus’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: V/23/214, Fiche no.1067-68], 1837.

Clarke, S.H., The Scinde Railway and Indus Flotilla Companies: Their Futility and Hollowness Demonstrated; in a Letter Addressed to the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Palmerston, London, 1858.

Conolly, Arthur, Journey to the north of India: overland from England, through Russia, Persia, and Affghaunistan, London, 1834.

Dalrymple, Alex, A Collection of Plans of Ports in the East Indies, London, 1782 [1774].

d’Anville, Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon, Éclaircissemens géographiques sur la carte de l’Inde, Paris, 1753;
A Geographical Illustration of the Map of India, tr. William Herbert, London, 1759;
Antiquité Géographique de l’Inde et de Plusieurs Autres Contreés de la Haute Asie, Paris, 1775.

de l’Hoste, E.P., ‘A Mission to Sinde’, [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.14382].

Duarte, Adrian, A History of British Relations with Sind 1613-1843, Karachi, 1976.

Durand, H.M., ‘Passage of the Indus by the Bengal portion of the Army of the Indus’, in Papers on Subjects Connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers, London, 1840.

East India Company, ‘Treaties with Sinde’, [National Archives, London: PRO30/12/33/5], 1809-1838;
East-India Register and Directory, London, 1829;
‘Memoranda on the N.W. Frontier of British India and on the importance of the river Indus as connected with its defence, drawn up by the desire of Sir J Malcolm’, 1830 [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.21178], 1830;
Abstract of Proceedings Relative to the Trade and Navigation of the Indus, Since the Settlement of the Last Treaty Regarding That River, London, 1837;
‘Treaty with the Ameers of Sinde, 22nd August, 1809’, in Correspondence Relating to Persia and Affghanistan, London, 1839.

Edney, Matthew, 1997: Mapping an Empire, Chicago, 1997.

Ellis, F.S., A Lexical Concordance to the Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, London, 1892.

Elphinstone, Mountstuart, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, London, 1815;
The History of India. The Hindu and Mahometan Periods, London, 1857.

England, India Office Library: Catalogue of Manuscripts in European Languages, London, 1916-37, (II).

Fane, Henry, Five Years in India, London, 1842.

Forster, George, Sketches of the Mythology and Customs of the Hindoos, London, 1785;
A Journey from Bengal to England, London, 1798.

Foster, William, The English Factories in India 1634-1636, Oxford, 1911;
The English Factories in India 1637-41, Oxford, 1912;
ed., The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to India 1615-1619, As Narrated in his Journal and Correspondence, London, 1926.

Fowler, F.J., ‘Some Problems of Water Distribution between East and West Punjab’, The Geographical Review, New York, 1950 (XL, pp.583-599).

Fowler, John, Report on the Best Width for the Proposed Narrow Gauge Railways for India, and their Applicability to the Indus Valley, London, 1870.

Fox, Franklin, Frank Allreddy’s Fortune, Or, Life on the Indus, London, 1891.

Gazdar, Haris, ‘Baglihar and Politics of Water: A Historical Perspective from Pakistan’, Economic and Political Weekly, Mumbai, 26 February 2005.

Gerard, James Gilbert, ‘Letters to William Fraser from Dr. James Gilbert Gerard, Soobathoo, mainly on the writer’s survey of the Trans-Indus regions’, [Fraser Family of Reelig, National Register of Archives, Scotland: NRAS2696/ Bundle 339], 1834.

Greathed, H.H., Letters written during the Siege of Delhi, 1858.

Haig, M.R., The Indus Delta Country: A Memoir Chiefly on its Ancient Geography and History, London, 1894.

Halliburton, ‘Personal letters from Douglas Gordon Halyburton (Halliburton) of Pictur to John Frederick Gordon, his nephew, son of George, 9th Marquess of Huntly’, [National Archives of Scotland: GD312/46/1-22], 1826-36.

Hall, J.H.W., Scenes in A Soldier’s Life, London, 1848.

Hamilton, Alexander, A New Account of the East Indies, Edinburgh, 1727.

Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates, London, 1840 (LI).

Hasan, Arif, Understanding Karachi: Planning and Reform for the Future, Karachi, 1999;
The Unplanned Revolution: Observations on the Process of Socio-Economic Change in Pakistan, Karachi, 2002.

Heddle, J.F., ‘Memoir on the River Indus’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: V/23/214, Fiche no. 1066-7], 1836.

Holdsworth, T.W.E. [with a Preface by A.H. Holdsworth], Campaign of the Indus: In A Series of Letters from an Officer of the Bombay Division, London, 1840.

Hough, W., A Narrative of the March and Operations of the Army of the Indus in the Expedition to Affghanistan in the Years 1838-1839, London, 1841.

Hughes, A.W., A Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh, London, 1874.

India, Government of, ‘Sinde: The Thur or Little Desert: A Sketch of the Runn and Countries Adjacent’; ‘Genealogical Tree of the Syuds of Roree and Bukkur; showing those mentioned by name in the Memoir (Numbers in accordance with the Genealogy registered in  the Jageer Office)’; ‘Sketch shewing Localities of Tribes on the Upper Scinde, Signed B.H. Ellis, Assistant Commissioner’; ‘Sketch of the Town of Jerrick situated on the Right Bank of the River Indus’; ‘Route from Kelat to Sonmeanee’; ‘Sketch of the Branches of the Indus: As they are supposed to have existed 20 years ago (A.D. 1817)’; ‘Sketch of the Branches of the Indus: As they exist at present (A.D.1837)’, [India Office Records, British Library: V/23 / Fiche A28], 1837;
Collection of Papers Regarding the Course of the Indus and Especially its Eastern Mouth and the Branches falling into the Runn of Cutch, Calcutta, 1843.

Irrigation Department & Research Circle, ‘Diagrams for River Indus’, [National Archives, London: AY10/63], 1918-30.

Jackson, K.A., Views in Affghaunistaun, &c. &c. &c. from Sketches taken during the Campaign of the Army of the Indus, London, 1842.

Jacquemont, Victor, ‘Letters to William Fraser, mainly from Victor Jacquemont’, [Fraser Family of Reelig, National Register of Archives, Scotland: NRAS2696/ Bundle 346], 1824-1833.

Jervis, T.B., Review of a Narrative of the Campaign of the Army of the Indus in Sindh and Kabul in 1838, 1839 by R.H. Kennedy, Bombay, 1841.

Kaye, John, Memoir of Henry St.George Tucker, London, 1854;
Lives of Indian Officers: Illustrative of the History of the Civil and Military Services in India, London, 1867;
History of the War in Afghanistan, London, 1874.

Keay, John, The Honourable Company: History of the English East India Company, London, 1993 [1991].

Kerr, Ian, Building the Railways of the Raj: 1850-1900, Delhi, 1995.

Khuhro, Hamida, The Making of Modern Sind: British Policy and Social Change in the Nineteenth Century, Karachi, 1978.

Khuwaja, Karim, Indus Valley: Environmental & Deltaic Crises, n.p. Karachi?, 2002.

Lal, Mohan, Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan, & Turkistan, to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat; and a Visit to Great Britain and Germany, London, 1846.

Lambrick, H.T., Sir Charles Napier and Sind, Oxford, 1952.

Laurie, William A., Memoir of James Burnes, Edinburgh, 1850.

‘Letters (with translations) from various Indian notables, including Ranjit Singh’, [Dalhousie Muniments, National Archives of Scotland: GD45/5/93], (nd).

Lilienthal, David E., ‘Another “Korea” in the Making?’, in Collier’s Magazine, New York, 4 August, 1951.

Literature on Line: http://lion.chadwyck.co.uk.

Love, John, A Serious Call respecting a Mission from Glasgow to the River Indus, Glasgow, 1826 [1820].

Malcolm, John, Sketch of the Political History of India, from the Introduction of Mr. Pitt’s Bill, A.D. 1784, to the present date, London, 1811;
Sketch of the Sikhs; A Singular Nation, Who Inhabit the Provinces of the Penjab, Situated Between the Rivers Jumna and Indus, London, 1812;
‘Extract of a letter from Major-General Sir John Malcolm G.C.’, [India Office, British Library: MssEurD153/17], 1820.

Marvell, Andrew, The Complete Poems, ed George de F. Lord, London, 1984.

Masson, Charles, Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab, Including a Residence in those Countries from 1826 to 1838, London, 1842.

Michel, Aloys, The Indus Rivers: A Study of the Effects of Partition, New Haven/London, 1967.

Napier Papers: ‘British Prospectus of North of India, Guzerat, and Indus Commercial Company’, [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.49115], 1843.

Napier, Charles, ‘Memorandum on Sind’ [1846], in ‘Correspondence concerning India’, [National Archives, London: PRO/30/12/14/5], 1845-58;
‘Memorandum by Sir Charles Napier on stream navigation of the Indus and Punjab rivers’, [Dalhousie Muniments, National Archives of Scotland: GD45/6/402], 24 July 1849.

Napier, W.F.P., The Conquest of Scinde, London, 1845;
The Life and Opinions of General Sir Charles James Napier, G.C.B., London, 1857.

Niaz, Anjum, ‘A watery grave for Napier’s ship’ in Star Weekend, Karachi, August 7 1986.

Oliver, R.,  ‘Papers regarding navigation of the Indus by Capt R. Oliver’, [India Office, British Library: MssEurF213/103], 1840-1.

Ollivant, Alfred, Old For-Ever: An Epic of Beyond the Indus, London, 1923.

Our Paper, ‘Kurrachee (and Scinde): OUR PAPER, published at Kurrachee every Tuesday and Friday morning’, [India Office, British Library: MssEurF208/117], 1867.

Outram, Captain James, Rough Notes of the Campaign in Sinde and Affghanistan in 1838-9: Being Extracts from a Personal Journal kept while on the staff of the Army of the Indus, Bombay, 1840.

Pakistan, Ministry of Industries, The Indus Basin Irrigation Water Dispute, [Lahore?], 1953.

Peel Papers, ‘General Correspondence of Sir Robert Peel, as First Lord of the Treasury (including alleged letter by Sir Henry Pottinger, condemning Lord Ellenborough’s treatment of the princes of Sind)’, [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.40538], 1844.

Postans, T., A Few Observations of the Increase of Commerce by Means of the River Indus, London, 1843;
Personal Observations on Sindh, London, 1843;
‘Memorandum relative to the trade in indigo carried on by the countries bordering on the Indus’, Bombay, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: V/23/213, Fiche no. 1066], 1855.

Pottinger, Henry, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, London, 1816;
‘Minute on province of Kutch’, ‘Minute on Scinde frontier’, [European Manuscripts Collection, British Library: Add.14375], 1829.
‘Exchange of letters between Charles Napier and Henry Pottinger… regarding the administration in Sind’, [National Archives, London: FO/705/36], 1844.

Rennell, James, An Account of the Ganges and Burrampooter Rivers, London, 1781;
Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan, London, 1783.

Roberston, William, The History of America, Dublin, 1777.

Ross, David, The Land of the Five Rivers and Sindh: Sketches Historical and Descriptive, London, 1883.

Sanghur, Aziz, ‘Pakistan’s fishermen cast around for a solution’, Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum, Karachi, www.pff.org.pk/article.php3?id_article=92, 24/02/2006.

‘Scindy Diary’, [Lambrick Collection, India Office, British Library: MssEurF208/106], 1 August 1762-31 July 1764.

Shah, Muhammed Ali, Fisherfolk: Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum Newsletter, Karachi.

Stirling, Edward, Some Consideration on the Political State of the Intermediate Countries between Persia and India, With reference to the Project of Russia marching an Army through them, London, 1835.

Sutherland, J., Cursory Observations on the Route from the N.W.P. to Upper Scinde, Illustrative of the Statistics and Geological Features of the Rivers Sutlej, Punjnud or Chena, and Scinde or Indus, Calcutta, 1844.

Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste, Les six voyages de Jean Baptiste Tavernier, tr. V. Ball, London, 1889 [Paris, 1676-77].

The Monthly Review, or Literary Journal, London, August 1834 (II:4); 1842.

The Spectator, London, 1834, 1842, 1843, 1844.

The Times, London, 1834, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1926, 1928, 1931.

Thapar, Romila, Narratives and the Making of History: two lectures, New Delhi, 2000.

Thompson, E. & G.T. Garratt, Rise and Fulfillment of British Rule in India, London, 1934.

Thornton, Edward, A Gazetteer of the Countries Adjacent to India on the North-West, London, 1844.

Vigne, G.T., Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, The Countries Adjoining the Mountain-Course of the Indus, and the Himalaya, North of the Punjab, London, 1842.

Vincent, William, The Voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, London, 1797.

Wainwright, M.D. & Noel Matthews, A Guide to Western Manuscripts and Documents in the British Isles Relating to South and South East Asia, London, 1965.
 
Wells, Hardy, Scinde: Kurachee Harbour Improvements. Letter to H.Bartle Frere, Esq., Commissioner in Scinde, Kurachee [Karachi], 1853.

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Wood, John, ‘Report upon the River Indus’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, India Office Records, British Library: V/23/212, Fiche nos. 1068-9, A28-9], 1838a;
‘Chart of the Indus River from Mittun to Attock’, by Lieutenant J. Wood, Indian Navy, [India Office Records, British Library: V/23 / Fiche A29], 1838b;
A Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Source of the River Oxus by the Route of the Indus, Kabul and Badakhshan, London, 1841.



Chapter Three


Ahmed, Feroz, ‘Africa on the Coast of Pakistan, in New Directions: The Howard University Magazine, Washington D.C., (XVI: 4, pp.22-31), October 1989.

Aravamudan, Srinivas, Tropicopolitans: Colonialism and Agency, 1688-1804, Durham, 1999.

Baillie, Alexander, Kurrachee: Past, Present and Future, Calcutta, 1890.

Baloch, N.A., Hosh Muhammad Qanbrani [booklet in English and Sindhi], Karachi, [1975].

Beachey, R.W., The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa, London, 1976.

Burton, Richard, ‘Notes relative to the population of Sind; and the customs, language, and literature of the people etc.’, [Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, New Series, India Office Records, British Library: Fiche no.1069-70], 1848;
Sindh, and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus, London, 1851;
Scinde: Or the Unhappy Valley, London, 1851;
Sind Revisited, 1877.

Catlin-Jairazbhoy, Amy & Edward A. Alpers, eds, Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians, Trenton, NJ/Delhi, 2004.

Coverte, Robert, A true and almost incredible report, London, 1612.

During, Jean, ‘African Winds and Muslim Djinns. Trance, Healing, and Devotion in Baluchistan’, in Yearbook for Traditional Music, 1997 (XXIX, pp. 39-56).

Enthoven, R.E., Tribes and Castes of Bombay, Bombay, 1922 (III).

Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P., ‘The Sidi and Swahili’, Bulletin of the British Association of Orientalists, London, 1971 (VI, pp.3-18).

Friese, Kai, ‘The Aryan Handshake: Blood and Belonging in India’, Transition 83: An International Review, Durham, North Carolina, 2000 (IX: 3, pp.4-35).

Fryer, John, A new account of East-India and Persia, in eight letters, London, 1698.

Gibb, H.A.R., tr., Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354, New Delhi, 2001 [1929].

Grose, John Henry, A Voyage to the East Indies, London, 1772.

Harris, Joseph E., The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade, Evanston, 1971. 

Hotchand, Seth Naomal, Memoirs, Karachi, 1982 [1915].

Jha, Vivekanand, ‘Stages in the History of Untouchables’, The Indian Historical Review, Delhi, July 1975 (II: 1, pp.14-31).

Lambrick, H.T., Sir Charles Napier and Sind, Oxford, 1952.

Lashari, Bakhshal, Disastrous Effects of Left Bank Outfall Drainage [LBOD] – A Mega Failure, Islamabad, 2003.

Muir, J., Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India; Collected, Translated into English and Illustrated by Notes, London, 1860 (II).

Mussafir, Mmd Siddiq, Ghulami ain Azadi Ja Ibratnak Nazara, Hyderabad, 1952; Manazil Mussafir, Kuliyat Mussafir, Hyderabad, 1965 (2nd edition; text completed October 2 1952).

Naidu, Uthaya, ‘Bible of Aryan Invasions: 1500 BC - 1000 AD’, http://www.light1998.com/The-Bible-of-Aryan-Invasions/bibai1.html

Naipaul, V.S., India: A Million Mutinies Now, London, 1991 [1990].

Qamar et al, ‘Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan’, in American Journal of Human Genetics, 2002 (LXX: 5, pp.1107-1124).

Pankhurst, Richard & Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya, eds, The African diaspora in the Indian Ocean, Trenton, NJ, 2003.

Pollock, Sheldon, ‘Ramayana and Political Imagination in India’, The Journal of Asian Studies, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1993 (LII:2, pp.261-297).

Qureshi, Shujauddin, Pakistan Fisherfolk Forum (PFF) Annual Report 2004, Karachi, 2005.

Rodinson, Maxime, Mohammed, tr. Anne Carter, London, 1971.

Ross, E. Denison, An Arabic History of Gujarat, London, 1910-1928 (II).

Russell, William Howard, My Diary in India in the Year 1858-9, London, 1860.

Schimmel, Annemarie, ‘Turk and Hindu: A Poetical Image and its Application to Historical Fact’ in Speros Vryonis Jr., ed., Islam and Cultural Change in the Middle Ages, Wiesbaden, 1975.

Segal, Ronald, Islam’s Black Slaves: The History of Africa’s Other Black Diaspora, London, 2001.

Smith, Vincent, The Oxford History of India, Oxford, 1920.

Thornton, John, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680, Cambridge, 1992.

Titus, Paul, Marginality and Modernity, Karachi, 1997.

Toru, Miura & John Edward Philips, eds, Slave Elites in the Middle East and Africa, London, 2000.

Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Vol I, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th centuries, Oxford, 1999 [1990].

Zerjal et al, ‘A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia’, in American Journal of Human Genetics, Chicago, 2002.



Chapter Four


Abbas, Shemeem Burney, The Female Voice in Sufi Ritual: Devotional Practices of Pakistan and India, Austin, 2002.

Abbott, J., Sind: A Re-interpretation of the Unhappy Valley, London/New York, 1924.

Advani, Kalyan B., Shah Latif, Delhi, 1970.

Ahmad, Aziz, Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment, Oxford, 1964.

Aitken, E.A., Gazetteer of the Province of Sind, A, Karachi, 1907.

Ajwani, Hazarisingh Gurbuxsingh, A Short Account of the Rise and Growth of the Shri Sadhbella Tirath, Sukkur, Sukkur, 1924.

Akhund, Abdul Hamid, ed., Shah Abdul Latif, his Mystical Poetry, np [Pakistan], nd [c.1991].

Ali, Rabia, There is no ‘honour’ in killing: The Dark Side of ‘Honour’, Women Victims in Pakistan, Lahore, 2001.

Allana, Ghulam Ali, Folk Music of Sind, Jamshoro, 1982.

Ansari, Sarah F.D., Sufi Saints and State Power: the pirs of Sind, 1843-1947, Cambridge, 1992.

Anti-Slavery International, This menace of bonded labour: debt bondage in Pakistan, [London], 1997;
www.antislavery.org/archive/submission/submission2002-pakistan.htm, 2002.

Arberry, A.J., tr., The Doctrine of the Sufis (Kitab al-Ta’arruf li-madhhab ahl al-tasawwuf. Translated from the Arabic of Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi, Lahore, 2001 [1935]; Muslim Saints and Mystics: Episodes from the Tadhkirat al-Auliya’ (“Memorial of the Saints”) by Farid al-Din Attar, London, 1979 [1966].

Aurat Foundation, Suggestions for Women’s Empowerment, Islamabad, 2002a;
Manifesto Suggestions for Women’s Empowerment (for Political Parties), Lahore, 2002b.

Baloch, Shargil, Ki Jana Mai Kaun [documentary film produced by Action Aid], Karachi, 2004.

Bhatti, Rasheed, Birth of a Great Poet (Kalhora Period 1700-1784), Hyderabad, 2002.

Burnes, Alexander, Travels in Bokhara, Karachi, 1973 [1834].

Burton, Richard F., Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus, London, 1851; Sind Revisited: With Notices of The Anglo-Indian Army; Railroads; Past, Present, and Future, Etc., London, 1877.

Bux, Sufi Huzoor, ‘Shah Inayat Shaheed’ [monograph in Sindhi], Mirpur Bathoro, 1981.

Carter, G.E.L., ‘Religion in Sind’, in The Indian Antiquary, Bombay, September 1917 (XLVI).

Coomaraswamy, Ananda, A New Approach to the Vedas: An Essay in Translation and Exegesis, London, 1933.

Cousens, Henry, in Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey of Western India, Bombay, for the year ending 30th June 1897.

Currie, P.M., Mu’in al-din Chishti of Ajmer, Delhi, 1989.

Das, Karashni Narayan, Shri Sindh Sapt Nad Sadhubela Teerath Mahatamay [The Importance of the Seven Rivers of Shri Sindh, Sadhubela Teerath, Anthology of passages about the Indus from Hindu scriptures in Sindhi and Sanskrit], Sukkur, 1922.

Duarte, Adrian, A History of British Relations with Sind 1613-1843, Karachi, 1976.

Eastwick, E.B., Dry Leaves from Young Egypt, London, 1851.

Eaton, Richard, The rise of Islam and the Bengal frontier, 1204-1760, Berkeley/London, 1993.

Gurusakhi Suryodaya Charitamrit i.e. Guru Bankhandi Yogsidhi [History of the Miracles manifested by Sat-guru Bankhandi Sahib], tr. Banhomal Kishindas Chabria, Sukkur, 1936.

Hasan, Arif, ‘A Changing Cityscape’ in Star Special Report, July 7 1984;
‘Another Time, Another Place: A journey through Karachi’s pre-British past’ in The Herald, Karachi, August 1986;
‘The Development in Pakistan and the Economic and Social Changes Associated with it’ from Lecture Forum Series 1, Karachi, 1999;
The Unplanned Revolution: Observations on the Process of Socio-Economic Change in Pakistan, Karachi, 2002.

Hasan, Maulana & Maulana Shabir Ahmad Usmani, Tafsir Usmani, Lahore, 1335 AH [1916].

Hughes, A.W., A Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh, London, 1874.

Human Rights Watch, Crime or Custom? Violence against women in Pakistan, Karachi, 2001.

Husain, N. et al, ‘Depression and social stress in Pakistan’, in Psychological Medicine, March 2000 (XXX: 2, pp.395-402).

Husain, Yusuf, L’Inde Mystique Au Moyden Age: Hindous et Musulmans, Paris, 1929.

International Seminar on Kalhora Rule in Sindh, Karachi, 1996.

Jotwani, Motilal, Sufis of Sindh, Delhi, 1986.

Kazi, Elsa, Risalo of Shah Abdul Latif, Hyderabad, 1996 [1965].

Khakee, Gulshan, The Dasa Avatara of the Satpanthi Ismailis and the Imam Shahis of Indo-Pakistan, Unpublished PhD, Harvard, Cambridge (Mass), 1972.

Khamisani, Amena, The Risalo of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai: Translated in Verse. Hyderabad, 2003.

Khuhro, Hamida, ‘Masjid Manzilgah 1939-40: Test case for Hindu-Muslim Relations in Sind’ in Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge, 1998b.

Kincaid, C.A., Folk Tales of Sind and Guzarat, Karachi, 1925.

Lari, Yasmeen & Suhail Zaheer, The Jewel of Sindh: Summa Monuments on Makli Hill, Karachi, 1997.

Lashari, Kaleem & Asma Ibrahim, ‘Mural Paintings of Dadu’, in The Archaeological Review 2000-2001, Asma Ibrahim & Kaleem Lashari, eds, Karachi, 2001, pp.109-116;
‘Painted tombs’: in The Review, Dawn, July 15-21 2004.

le Strange, Guy, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge, 1930.

Manrique, Fray Sebastien, Travels of Fray Sebastien Manrique 1629-1643: A Translation of the Itinerario de las Missiones Orientales, Volume II: China, India, Etc., Oxford, 1927.

Manzoor, Hamid, The Medical Spectrum: Journal of Pakistan Medical Association Karachi – Special Issue Violence Against Women, Karachi, December 2001 (XXII:12).

Mariwalla, C.L., ‘The Tri-islets in the Indus’, in Sindhian World, Karachi, 1940 (I:3).

Markovits, Claude, The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947. Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama, Cambridge, 2000.

Masud, M., Hari Report: note of dissent, Karachi, [1975].

Maududi, S. Abul A’la, Al-Hijab: Purdah and the Status of Women in Islam, tr. Al-Ash‘ari, Lahore, 1998 [1972].

Memon, Muhammad Siddique G., Sukkur Then and Now, Karachi, 2000.

Mirza, Ilyas & Rachel Jenkins, ‘Risk factors, prevalence and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review’, British Medical Journal, London, 3 April 2004 (328: 794).

Mirza, K.F., Life of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai: And a Brief Commentary on his Risalo with Selections bearing on the Mystic Philosophy of Sufis, Hyderabad, 1980.

Panhwar, M.H., Source Material on Sind, Jamshoro, Pakistan, 1977.

Pithawalla, M.B., Sind’s Changing Map: An Album Containing 51 Old and Rare Maps of Sind with Critical and Explanatory Notes on them, Karachi, 1938.

Qasim, Qasim Ali, ‘Pucca Qila Hyderabad’ [pamphlet], Hyderabad, 2002.

Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt, Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context and Meaning in Qawwali,  Karachi, 2006 [1986].

Qureshi, Mian Iqbal Ahmed [Sajjadah Nasheen], History in Brief of Dargah Hazrat Khawaja Khizer Rohri Sharif Dist. Sukkur (Sindh) [Manuscript pamphlet, in press], Sukkur, c.2006.

Rashdi, Sayed Hussamuddin, ‘Sufi Shah Inayat Shaheed’ and ‘Shah Inayat Sufi, the first agricultural reformist of Sindh’ [both articles taken from his Sindhi work ‘Chats about the folk villages’], Hyderabad, 1981.

Sadarangani, H.I., Persian Poets of Sind, Karachi, 1956.

Sahrai, Taj Muhammad, Lake Manchar: the most ancient sea of Sindhu Cultures, Karachi, 1997.

Schimmel, Annemarie, ‘Shah Inayat of Jhok, A Sindhi Mystic’, in Liber Amicorum: Studies in Honor of Professor Dr CJ Bleeker, Leiden, 1969; Sindhi Literature, Wiesbaden, 1974;
Mystical Dimensions of Islam, Chapel Hill [North Carolina Press], 1975;
Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth Century Muslim India, Leiden, 1976;
Pearls from the Indus, Jamshoro, Pakistan, 1986;
My Soul Is a Woman: The Feminine in Islam, tr. Susan H. Ray, New York, 1997 [1995].

Seth, Mesrovb Jacob, Armenians in India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Calcutta, 1937 (quoted in ‘Sarmad, A mystic poet beheaded in 1661’ on www.crda-france.org/fr/6histoire/par_pays/inde_sarmad1.htm).

Sharot, Stephen, A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: Virtuosos, Priests, and Popular Religion, New York/London, 2001.

Sibt-e-Hassan, ‘Socialist Sufi of Sindh’ [article taken from book Naveed-e-Fiqr], Karachi, 1995;
‘Sufi Shah Inayat Jee Halchal’ [The Movement of Sufi Shah Inayat’] in Jadhen Jhok Jhurio [When Jhok was ruined], np, nd.

Sind Hari Committee [Hyder Baksch Jatoi, President], Break up ONE UNIT: Restore Full Provincial Autonomy to Sind, Baluchistan, Pashtoonistan, Hyderabad, 1969;
Haris’ Petition of Rights: Amendments to the Sind Tenancy Act, 1950, Hyderabad, 1952;
[H.B.Jatoi] Disposal of Gudu Barrage State Lands (And Makhi Dhandhu Area), Hyderabad, 1967.

Singer, Isidore and Louis H. Gray, ‘Sarmad, Mohammed Sa‘id’ in Jewish Encyclopedia, www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid+257&letter+S, 2002.

Smyth, J.W., Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: “B” Volume I Karachi District, Bombay, 1919; Volume III Sukkur District, Bombay, 1919;“B” Volume II Hyderabad District, Bombay, 1920.

Sorley, H.T., Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit: His Poetry, Life and Times. A Study of Literary, Social and Economic Conditions in Eighteenth Century Sind, Oxford, 1940.

Stuart, Tristram, The Bloodless Revolution: Radical Vegetarians and the Discovery of India, London, 2006.

Syed, G.M., Religion and Reality, Karachi, 1986;
The Case of Sindh: G.M. Syed’s Deposition for the Court, Karachi, 1995.

Raverty, H.G., The Mihrán of Sind and its Tributaries: a geographical and historical study, Calcutta, 1892.

Temple, Sir Richard Carnac, ‘Zinda Peer, the everliving saint of India’ [Manuscript and typescript in the archives of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 96088], c.1930;
‘A general view of Indian Muslim saints’ [First monograph of author’s researches into the nature of Zinda Peer, everliving saint of India: Manuscript and typescript in the archives of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 96086], 1931.

Thakur, Naraindas S., Jai Jhoole Lal Life Story: Amar Uderolal, Pushkar, n.d.

Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Vol I, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th centuries, Oxford, 1999 [1990].

www.zindapeer.cjb.net

Yusuf, Zohra, ed., Rhythms of the Lower Indus: Perspectives on the Music of Sindh, Karachi, 1988.

Zaidi, Mazhar, Hassan Mujtaba & Farhad Nabi, ‘The last of the Mohanos: Special Report’ in The News International, Karachi, October 21 1994.



Chapter Five


Abbasi, A.N.G., Report of Technical Committee on Water Resources [‘Abbasi Report’], Islamabad: http://www.cssforum.com.pk/off-topic-discussions/general-knowledge-quizzes-iq-tests/2173-report-technical-commitee-water-resources.html, 2005.

Ahmad, Aziz, Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment, Oxford, 1964.

Ahuja, N.D., The Great Guru Nanak and the Muslims, Chandigarh, [1972?].

Ali, Imran, The Punjab Under Imperialism, 1885-1947, Princeton, 1988.

Bengali, Kaiser, ed., The Politics of Managing Water, Oxford/Islamabad, 2003.

Burnes, Alexander, ‘Letter from Captain Burnes to Gen. Ramsay relating to proceedings at Roopur’ [Dalhousie Letters, National Archives of Scotland: G45/5/93], , 31 October 1831.

Cohen, Stephen P., The Indian Army: Its Contribution to the Development of a Nation, Delhi, 1990 [1971];
The Pakistan Army. 1998 Edition. With a New Foreword and Epilogue, Oxford, 1999 [1994];
The Idea of Pakistan. Washington D.C., 2004.

Gadgil, Madhav & Ramachandra Guha, The Use and Abuse of Nature, New Delhi, 2000.

Gazdar, Muhammad Nasir, An Assessment of the Kalabagh Dam Project on the River Indus Pakistan – The Sabz Bagh: ‘Promising a Rose Garden but Delivering Dust’, Karachi, 1990.

Gazdar, Mushtaq, Pakistan Cinema 1947-1997, Karachi, 1997.

Gulraj, Jethmal Parsram, Sind and its Sufis, Madras, 1924.

Husain, Yusuf, L’Inde Mystique Au Moyen Age: Hindous et Musulmans, Paris, 1929.

Kohli, Surindar Singh, Travels of Guru Nanak, Chandigarh, 1969.

Kumar, Amitava, ‘Splitting the Difference’, in Transition, Issue 89, 2001.

Lafont, Jean-Marie, Indika: Essays in Indo-French Relations, 1630-1976, Delhi, 2000.

Mann, Gurinder Singh, The Making of Sikh Scripture, Oxford, 2001.

Markovits, Claude, The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750-1947. Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama, Cambridge, 2000.

McLeod, W.H., Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion, Delhi, 1996 [1968].

Mosley, Leonard, The Last Days of the British Raj, London, 1962.

Nayyar, A.H. & Ahmed Salim, in The Subtle Subversion: The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan, Islamabad, n.d. c.2003.

Padmanabhan, Manjula, Getting There, London, 2000.

Pakistan, Islamic Republic of, Presentation of Sind Case Before the Indus Waters Committee: Presented by A.W.F. Shaikh [Photocopy of unpublished document, marked ‘For Official Use Only’], 1971.

Pearce, Fred, When the Rivers Run Dry: What happens when our water runs out?, London, 2006.

Purewal, Shinder, Sikh Ethnonationalism and the Political Economy of the Punjab, New Delhi, 2000.

Richards, J.F. et al, ‘Changing Land Use in Bihar, Punjab and Haryana, 1850-1970’, in Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge, 1985.

Saeed, Fouzia, Taboo: The Hidden Culture of a Red Light Area, Karachi, 2002.

Saigol, Rubina, ‘Curriculum in India and Pakistan’ in South Asian Journal, October-December 2004: www.southasianmedia.net/magazine/journal/6_curriculum_india.htm

Schimmel, Annemarie, Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth Century Muslim India, Leiden, 1976.

Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, The Golden Temple: Its Theo-Political Status [by Sirdar Kapur Singh], Amritsar, 2002;
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Shiva, Vandana, The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics, London, 1991.

Siddiqa, Ayesha, Military Inc: inside Pakistan’s military economy, London, 2007.

Singh, Fauja & Kirpal Singh, Atlas: Travels of Guru Nanak, Patiala, 1976.

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Singh, Maharaja Ranjit, Letter to Alexander Burnes, John Murray archive (now in the National Library of Scotland), n.d..

Waslekar, Sundeep [Strategic Foresight Group], The Final Settlement: Restructuring India-Pakistan Relations, Mumbai, 2005.



Chapter Six


Abul-Fazl, The Akbarnama of Abu-l-Fazl, tr. H. Beveridge, Calcutta, 1910 (III);
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.
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Ali, Tariq, The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, London, 2002.

Al Utbi, The Kitab-i-Yamini, Historical Memoirs of the Amir Sabaktagin and the Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, tr. James Reynolds, London, 1858.

Ammon, Richard, Global Gayz.com: http://www.globalgayz.com/g-pakistan.html

Arberry, A.J., Classical Persian Literature, London, 1967 [1958].

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Barthold, W., tr, Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion, London, 1928.

Babur, The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur), [Translated from the original Turki text of Zahiru’d-din Muhammad Babur Padshah Ghazi], tr. Annette Beveridge, London, 1922.

Banerjee, Mukulika, The Pathan Unarmed: Opposition and Memory in the North West Frontier, Oxford, 2000.

Biddulph, C.E., Afghan Poetry of the Seventeenth Century: Being Selections from the Poems of Khush Hal Khan Khatak, London, 1890.

Bilgrami, Raft Masood, Religious and Quasi-Religious Departments of the Mughal Period (1556-1707), Delhi, 1984.

Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The Ghaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran 994-1040, Edinburgh, 1963.

Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab, Sexuality in Islam, tr. Alan Sheridan, London, 1985 [1975].

Browne, Edward G., A Literary History of Persian From the Earliest Times until Firdawsi, London, 1909.

Burton, Richard, ‘Terminal Essay: Social Conditions: Pederasty’ in A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments, Boston, 1919 (X).

Caroe, Olaf, The Pathans, London, 1958.

Coll, Steve, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 19, 2001, New York, 2004.

Constitutional, Political, Economic and Cultural Exploitation of Pashtoonkhwa: The Seminar organized by PONM (Pakistan Oppressed Nations Movement) [Papers presented by Pashtoonkhwa Milli Awami Party], Islamabad, 2004.

Dani, Professor Ahmad Hasan, Alberuni’s Indica (A Record of the Cultural History of South Asia about AD 1030), Islamabad, 1973.

Dozy, R., Supplement aux Dictionnaires Arabes, Leyde, 1881.

Dupree, Nancy Hatch, An historical guide to Afghanistan, Kabul, 1977 [1970].

Elliot, H.M., The History of India, as told by its own historians: the Muhammadan period, ed. John Dowson, London, 1867-77 (II).

Elphinstone, Mountstuart, The History of India, London, 1843 [1841].

Enevoldsen, Jens, tr., Sound the bells, O moon, arise and shine! A Collection of Pashto proverbs and tappas, Peshawar, 2004 [1969].

Ferdowsi, Le Livre des Rois par Abou’l Kasim Firdousi, traduit du persan par Jules Mohl, Paris, 1876.

Ferishta, Muhammad Kasim, History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, tr. J. Briggs, London, 1829 (I).

Habib, Mohammad, Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznin, Aligarh, 1951 [1927].

Howell, Evelyn & Olaf Caroe, The Poems of Khushal Khan Khatak, Peshawar, 1963.

Iran Society, Al Biruni Commemoration Volume, Calcutta, 1951.

Ismail, Prof M., ‘Ghazi Brotha’s effects on Swabi’ in The News International, Karachi, November 18 1995;
‘Community Perceptions of Male Child Sexual Abuse in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan’, Peshawar: www.crin.org/docs/resources/publications/SexAbuse1.pdf, [nd, c.1997].

Joshi, Rita, The Afghan Nobility and the Mughals, 1526-1707, Delhi, 1985.

Kazmi, S. Hasan Askari, The Makers of Muslim Geography: Alberuni, Delhi, 1995.

Kennedy, Miranda, ‘Open Secrets’, Boston Globe, Boston, 11 July 2004.

Khan, Ghani, The Pathans: A Sketch, Peshawar, 1958.

Mackenzie, D.N., Poems from the Divan of Khushal Khan Khattak, London, 1965.

Majumdar, R.C., The History and Culture of the Indian People, The Struggle for Empire, Bombay, 1957.

Mmh, Turaj, Lundaye: Pashto Folk Couplets, Kabul, 2002.

Muhammad, Tufail & Naeem Zafar, ‘Situational Analysis Report on Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan (Lahore & Peshawar)’, www.ecpat.net/eng/publications/Boy_Prostitution/PDF/Pakistan.pdf, June 2006.

Murray, Stephen O. & Will Roscoe, eds, Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History and Literature, New York, 1997a;
& Badruddin Khan, ‘Pakistan’ in Sociolegal control of homosexuality: a multi-nation comparison, Donald J. West & Richard Green, eds, New York, 1997b, pp.119-126.

Narrain, Arvind & Brototi Dutta, ‘Male-to-male sex, and sexuality minorities in South Asia: An analysis of the politico-legal framework’, in Risks and Responsibilities: Male Sexual Health and HIV in Asia and the Pacific-International Consultation, New Delhi, www.risksandresponsibilities.org/ResearchPapers_ArvindNarrain.pdf, 23-26 September 2006.

Nath, R., History of Mughal Architecture, New Delhi, 1982.

Nazim, Muhammad, The Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, Cambridge 1931.

NWFP, Government of, ‘Hisbah Bill’, Law, Parliamentary Affairs and Human Rights Department Government of NWFP, Peshawar, 2005.

National Democratic Consultative Process, Pakhtunkhwa: A Developmental Framework, [Peshawar?], May 2003.

Qaiyum, Abdul, Gold and Guns on the Pathan Frontier, Bombay, 1945.

Qisas & Diyat Ordinance, Lahore, n.d.

Rahim, Muhammad Abdur, History of the Afghans in India AD 1545-1631, Karachi, 1954.

Rashid, Ahmed: Taliban: The Story of the Afghan Warlords [first edition subtitled Islam, Oil and the New Great Game in Central Asia], London, 2001 [2000].

Raverty, H.G., Selections from the Poetry of the Afghans, Lahore, 2002 [1862];
A Grammar of the Afghan Language, London, 1867;
Tabakat i Nasiri: A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia, Delhi, 1970 [1881];
Notes on Afghanistan and part of Baluchistan, London, 1888.

Richards, J.F., The Mughal Empire, Cambridge, 1993.

Roy Choudhury, M.L., The State and Religion in Mughal India, Calcutta, 1951.

Schmitt, Arno and Jehoeda Sofer, eds, Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies, Binghampton/London, 1992.

Sharma, Arvind, Studies in Alberuni’s India, Wiesbaden, 1983.

Sharma, S.R., The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors, London, 1972 [1940].

Sharma, Sunil, Persian Poetry at the Indian Frontier, Delhi, 2000.

Sodomy Laws: http://www.sodomylaws.org/world/pakistan/pakistan.htm.

South Asian Citizens’ Wire: www.sacw.com.

Stewart, Rory, The Places in Between, London, 2004.

Thapar, Romila, Narratives and The Making of History: Two Lectures, Delhi, 2000.

The Frontier Post, Peshawar & Quetta.

Vigne, G.T., A Personal Narrative of a visit to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan, and of a residence at the court of Dost Mohamed, London, 1840.

Welch, Stuart Cary, A King’s Book of King: The Shah-Nameh of Shah Tahmasp, New York, 1972.

Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Vol I, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th centuries, Oxford, 1999 [1990].

Zafar, Emmanuel, Law & Practice of Islamic Hudood, Lahore, 2002 [1981].


Chapter Seven


Ackermann, Hans Christopher, Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhara in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London: Catalogue and Attempt at a Stylistic History, Rome, 1975.

Alberuni, Alberuni’s India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology of India about A.D.1030, tr. Edward C. Sachau, London, 1888.

Al-Idrisi, India and the Neighbouring Territories in the Kitab Nuzhat Al-Mushtaq Fi’Khtiraq Al-Afaq of Al-Sharif Al-Idrisi, tr. S. Maqbul Ahmad, Leiden, 1960.

Baker, P.H.B. & and F.R. Allchin, Shahr-i Zohak and the History of the Bamiyan Valley Afghanistan, Oxford, 1991.

Barger, Evert & Philip Wright, Excavations in Swat and Explorations in the Oxus Territories of Afghanistan. A detailed report of the 1938 Expedition, Delhi, 1941.

Beyer, Stephan, The Cult of Tara: Magic and Ritual in Tibet, Berkeley, 1978.

Bloch, Jules, tr., Les Inscriptions d’Asoka, Paris, 1950.

Boucher, Daniel, ‘Gandhari and the early Chinese Buddhist translations reconsidered: the case of the Saddharmapundarikasutra’ in The Journal of the American Oriental Society, New Haven, October 1998 (CXVIII:4, pp. 471-473).

Buchthal, H., The Western Aspects of Gandhara Sculpture, Oxford, 1945.

Cammann, Schuyler, Trade Through the Himalayas: The Early British Attempts to Open Tibet, Princeton, 1951.

Carter, Martha L., ‘Dionysiac Aspects of Kushan Art’, in Ars Orientalis: The Arts of Islam and the East, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1968 (VII);
‘Dionysiac Festivals and Gandharan Imagery’, in Res Orientales IV: Banquets d’Orient, Leuven, 1992.

Chandra, Moti, Trade and trade routes in ancient India, New Delhi, 1977.

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K., The Origin of the Buddha Image, New York, 1927.

Dargyay, Eva M., The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet, Delhi, 1979 [1977].

Dhammika, Ven. S., The Edicts of King Ashoka: www.cs.colostate.edu/?malaiya/ashoka.html

Dupree, Nancy Hatch, Gandhara: An Instant Guide to Pakistan’s Heritage, Karachi, 1980.

Elisseeff, Vadime, ed., The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce, New York/Oxford, 2000.

Ellam, J.E., Buddhism and Lamaism: A Study of the Religion of Tibet, Calcutta/Simla, 1924.

Faccenna, Domenico, Sculptures from the Sacred Area of Butkara I, Part 2: Plates, Rome, 1962;
A Guide to the Excavations in Swat (Pakistan) 1956-1962, Rome, 1964;
G. Tucci & Domenico Faccenna, eds, Butkara I (Swat, Pakistan) 1956-1962; Part 1: Text, [Reports and Memoirs, Volume III: 1], Rome, 1980.

Fa Hsien, A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fâ-Hien of His Travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) In Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline, tr. James Legge, Oxford, 1886.

Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century, London, 1999.

Foucher, Alfred, L’Art Gréco-Bouddhique du Gandhâra, Paris, 1905-1941;
La Vieille Route de l’Inde de Bactres à Taxila, Paris, 1942.
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Goswami, Jaya, Cultural History of Ancient India (A Socio-Economic and Religio-Cultural Survey of Kapisa and Gandhara), Delhi, 1979.

Habib, Mohammad, Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznin, Aligarh, 1951 [1927].

Hackin, J., Memoires de la Delegation Archeologique Francaise en Afghanistan, Tome III, Nouvelles Recherche Archeologiques a Bamiyan, Paris, 1933;
with Ahmad Ali Khozad, Legendes et Coutumes Afghanes, Paris, 1953.

Hallade, Madeleine, The Gandhara Style: and the Evolution of Buddhist Art, London, 1968.

Horner, I.B., tr., Milinda’s Questions, London, 1964.

Hultzsch, E., Inscriptions of Asoka, Oxford, 1925.

Ingholt, Harold, Gandharan Art in Pakistan, New York, 1957.

Italian Archaeological Mission (IsmEO) Pakistan, Swat, 1956-1981: documentary exhibition, Rome, 1982.

Jettmar, Karl, ‘Ethnological Research in Dardistan 1958’, in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, February 1961 (CV:1, pp.79-97).
Bolar and Dardistan: A Contribution to the Political and Ethnic Geography of Northern Pakistan; Ethnological Research in Dardistan, Islamabad, 1980 [1958].

Kalter, Johannes: The Arts and Crafts of the Swat Valley: Living Traditions in the Hindu Kush, London, 1991.

Kangle, R.P., tr., The Kautiliya Arthasastra, Bombay, 1965-72.

Karttunen, K., India in Early Greek Literature, Helsinki, 1989.

Kawamura, Leslie S, ed., The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhism, Waterloo, Ontario, 1981.

Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: the trail of political Islam, Cambridge, Mass., 2002 [2000].

Khan, Makin, ‘The Tibetan Pilgrim, Urgyan-Pa, also passed through Swat valley in 1250AD’ in Archaeological Museum Saidu Sharif, Swat: A Guide, Saidu Sharif, 1997.

Klimburg Salter, Deborah, The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist Art and Culture of the Hindu Kush, Naples-Rome, 1989.

Lamotte, Etienne, History of Indian Buddhism, Louvain La Neuve, 1988.

Linrothe, Rob, ed., Holy Madness: portraits of tantric siddhas, Chicago, 2006.

Lopez, Donald S., Buddhism, London, 2001.

Mainwaring, Lieut Colonel, The Gandhara Sculptures, A Symposium, Dorchester, 1903.

Marshall, John, A guide to Taxila, Calcutta, 1921.

Milindapanha, [The Questions of King Milinda], ed. T.W.R. Rhys Davids, [Sacred Books of the East volume 35], Oxford, 1890-1894; http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/sbe35/sbe3502.htm

Mishra, T.N., Buddhist Tantra and Buddhist Art, New Delhi, 2000.

Musée Guimet, L’Art du Gandhara et de l’Asie Centrale dans les collections du Pakistan, de Berlin et de Rome, Paris, 1958-1959.

Narain, A.K., ed., Studies in Buddhist Art of South Asia, New Delhi, 1985.

Rowland, Benjamin, The Evolution of the Buddha Image, New York, 1963.

Salomon, Richard, Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages, Oxford, 1998;
Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhara: The British Library Kharoshti Fragments, London, 1999.

Samuel, Geoffrey, Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies, Washington/London, 1993.

Sardar, Badshah, Buddhist Rock Carvings in the Swat Valley, Islamabad, 2005.

Sehrai, Fidaullah, Hund The Forgotten City of Gandhara, Peshawar, 1979.

Stacul, Giorgio, Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c.3000 BC – 1400 BC), Rome, 1987.

Tarn, W.W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge, 1951.

Thapar, Romila, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, Delhi, 1997 [1961];
The Mauryas Revisited, New Delhi, 1987.

Tissot, Francine, The Art of Gandhara: Buddhist monks on the North-West Frontier of Pakistan, Paris, 1986.

Trail, Gail H., ‘Tysam revisited: a study of Kalasha origins’ in  Elena Bashir & Israr-ud-Din, eds., Proceedings of the second International Hindukush Cultural Conference, Karachi, 1996, pp.359-76.

Tucci, G., The Religions of Tibet, London, 1980.

van Lohuizen de Leeuw, J.E., ‘New Evidence with Regard to the Origin of the Buddha Image’, in South Asian Archaeology, ed. Herbert Hartel, Berlin, 1979.

Waddell, L. Austine, The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, Cambridge, 1934 [1895].

Sims-Williams, Nicholas, ‘New Findings in Ancient Afghanistan: the Bactrian documents discovered from the Northern Hindu-Kush’ [Lecture at Ancient Orient Museum, Tokyo], 23/09/1997: www.gengo.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/?hkum/bactrian.html

Williams, Paul, Mahayana Buddhism, London, 1989.

Wink, André, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Vol I, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th centuries, Oxford, 1999 [1990].

Wriggins, Sally Hovey, XuanZang: A Buddhist Pilgrim on the Silk Road, Oxford/Colorado, 1996.

XuanZang, Si Yu Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, tr. Samuel Beal, London, 2000 [1884];
The Life of Hieun-Tsiang, by the Shamans Hwui Li and Yen-Tsung, tr. Samuel Beal, London, 1888.

Zwalf, W., A Catalogue of the Gandhara Sculpture in the British Museum, Volume 1: Text, London, 1996.


Chapter Eight


Aeschylus, Aeschylus II: The Suppliant Maidens, The Persians, Seven Against Thebes, Prometheus Bound, Chicago, 1956.

Allen, Charles, The Search for Shangri-La, London, 1999.

Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, tr. E. Iliff Robson, London, 1929;
Arrian. 1, Anabasis Alexandri, tr. P.A. Brunt, Cambridge, Mass., 1976;
The Campaigns of Alexander, tr. Aubrey de Sélincourt, London, 1971.
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Ashley, James R., The Macedonian Empire: The Era of Warfare Under Philip II and Alexander the Great, 359 – 323 BC, Jefferson/London, 1998.

Balfour, Edward, Medical Hints to the People of India: The Vydian and the Hakim, What do they know of medicine?, Madras, 1875.

Babur, The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur), tr. Annette Beveridge, London, 1921 (I).

Bharucha, F.R., A Textbook of the Plant Geography of India, Bombay, 1983.

Bor, N.L., Manual of Indian Forest Botany, Oxford, 1953.

Bosworth, A.B., ‘Alexander and the Iranians’, in Journal of Hellenic Studies, London, 1980 (C, pp.1-21);
A Historical commentary on Arrian’s history of Alexander, Oxford, 1995.

Briant, Pierre, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, tr. Peter T. Daniels, Winona Lake, 2002.

Bunbury, E.H., A History of Ancient Geography Among the Greeks and Romans, New York, 1959 [1883].

Caroe, Olaf, The Pathans: 550 B.C. – A.D.1957, London, 1962. 

Carter, Martha L., ‘Dionysiac Aspects of Kushan Art’, in Ars Orientalis: The Arts of Islam and the East, Ann Arbor, 1968 (VII).

Cunningham, Alexander, Ladák, Physical, Statistical, and Historical; With Notices of the Surrounding Countries, London, 1854.

Curtius Rufus, Quintus, The Actes of the Greate Alexander, tr. Iohn Brende, Amsterdam/New York, 1971 [London, 1553];
The History of Alexander, tr. John Yardley, Harmondsworth, 1984.

Davis, Dick, Epic and Sedition: the case of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, Fayetteville (U.S.A.), 1992.

Diodorus, Siculus, The Antiquities of Asia: A Translation with Notes of Book II of the Library of History of Diodorus Siculus, tr., Edwin Murphy, New Brunswick/Oxford, 1989.

Eggermont, P.H.L., ‘Alexander’s Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy’s List of Indo-Scythian Towns’, in Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, Leuven, 1970, pp.63-123.

Ehrenberg, Victor, Alexander and the Greeks, tr. Ruth Fraenkel von Velsen, Oxford, 1938.

Euripides, Euripides V: The Bacchae, tr. William Arrowsmith, Chicago, 1959.

Foltz, Richard C., Religions of the Silk Road: Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century, London, 1999.

Gunderson, Lloyd L., Alexander’s Letter to Aristotle about India, Meisenheim am Glan, 1980.

Haider, Gul, [Unpublished notes on Alexander the Great’s campaigns in Bajaur given to me in Bajaur], 6.6.2005.

Hammond, N.G.L., Sources for Alexander the Great: An analysis of Plutarch’s Life and Arrian’s Anabasis Alexandrou, Cambridge, 1993.

Herodotus, The Histories, tr. George Rawlinson, London, 1992 [1910].

Homer, The Odyssey, tr. A.T. Murray, London, 1919;
The Iliad, tr. E.V. Rieu [revised and updated by Peter Jones with D.C.H. Rieu], Harmondsworth, 2003.

Hooker, J.D., The Flora of British India, London, 1879.

Horace, Odes and epodes, tr. Niall Rudd, Cambridge, Mass., 2004.

Hornblower, Simon & Antony Spawforth, The Oxford Classical Dictionary: Third Edition, Oxford, 1999 [1996].

Jamia Hamdard (Deemed to be University), History of Unani Medicine, New Delhi, 1993.

Jettmar, Karl, ‘An Ethnographic Sketch’ in Ahmad Hasan Dani, ed., History of Northern Areas of Pakistan (Upto 2000 AD), Lahore, 2001.

Karttunen, K., India in Early Greek Literature, Helsinki, 1989;
India and the Hellenistic World, Helsinki, 1997.

King, L.W. & R.C. Thompson, The Sculptures and Inscriptions of Darius the Great on the Rock of Behistun in Persia, London, 1907.

Knight, E.F., Where Three Empires Meet, London, 1893.

Lach, Donald F., Asia in the Making of Europe [I: The Century of Discovery, Bk 1], Chicago and London, 1965.

Lambert, Royston, Beloved and God: The Story of Hadria and Antinous, London, 1984.

Lane Fox, Robin, Alexander the Great, London, 1973;
The Search for Alexander, London, 1980.

Liddell, Henry George & Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, 1843.

McCrindle, J.W., Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian, London, 1877.

Parker, R.N., A Forest Flora for the Punjab with Hazara and Delhi, Lahore, 1924.

Philostratus the Elder, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana: the Epistles of Apollonius and the Treatise of Eusebius, tr. F.C. Conybeare, London, 1912.

Plutarch, The Age of Alexander: Nine Greek Lives by Plutarch, tr. Ian Scott-Kilvert, Harmondsworth, 1973. 

Romm, James, ed., Alexander the Great: Selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch and Quintus Curtius, tr. Pamela Mensch & James Romm, Indianapolis/Cambridge, 2005.

Schildgen, Brenda Deen, ‘Dante and the Indus: The Salvation of Pagans’ in Dante and the Orient, Urbana, c.2002.

Southgate, Minoo S., tr., Iskandarnamah: A Persian Medieval Alexander-Romance, New York, 1978.

Stein, Aurel, On Alexander’s Track to the Indus, London, 1929.

Stoneman, Richard, tr., The Greek Alexander Romance, Harmondsworth, 1991.

Strabo, The Geography of Strabo, tr. Horace Leonard Jones, London, 1923 (II).

Tarn, W.W., Alexander the Great. Volume 1: Narrative, Cambridge, 1948.

Thapar, Romila, ‘Megasthenes: Text and Context’ in The Mauryas Revisited, Calcutta, 1987.
 
Wolohojian, Albert Mugrdich, tr., The Romance of Alexander the Great by Pseudo-Callisthenes, , New York, 1969.



Chapter Nine


Ali, Ihsan et al, ‘New Exploration in the Chitral Valley, Pakistan: an extension of the Gandharan Grave culture’, in Antiquity, Cambridge, September 2002 (LXXVI: 293);
ed., Frontier Archaeology: Explorations and Excavations in NWFP, Pakistan, Peshawar, 2005 (III).

Allchin, B, ‘South Asian rock art’, in Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, London, 1988, pp.138-156.

Allchin, F.R., ‘A Pottery Group from Ayun Chitral’, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1970 (XXXIII).

Anati, Emmanuel, ‘Saving the World’s Rock Art’, in Archaeology, New York, 1983 (XXXVI:2, pp.24-30).

Barth, Fredrik, Indus and Swat Kohistan: An Ethnographic Survey, Oslo, 1956.

Bashir, Elena & Israr-ud-Din, eds, Proceedings of the Second International Hindukush Cultural Conference, Karachi, 1996.

Biddulph, John, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, Calcutta, 1880.

Bleeck, Arthur Henry, The Religious Books of the Parsees; from Professor Spiegel’s German Translation of the Original Manuscripts, London, 1864.

Briant, Pierre, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, tr. Peter T. Daniels, Winona Lake, 2002.

Bryant, Edwin, The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, New Delhi, 2002 [2001];
with Laurie Patton, eds, The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and inference in Indian history, London, 2005.

Burrow, T., The Sanskrit Language, London, 1973 [1955].

Cacopardo, Albert & Augusto, ‘The Kalasha in Southern Chitral’ in Elena Bashir & Israr-ud-Din, eds, Proceedings of the Second International Hindukush Cultural Conference, Karachi, 1996.

Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar & Robert G. Bednarik, Indian Rock Art and Its Global Context, Delhi, 1997.

Coomaraswamy, Ananda, A New Approach to the Vedas: An Essay in Translation and Exegesis, London, 1933.

Curtis, Gregory, The cave painters: probing the mysteries of the first artists, New York 2006.

Dani, A.H., Ancient Pakistan, Peshawar, 1967 (III);
ed., Journal of Central Asia, 1978 (I:1);
Chilas: The City of Nanga Parvat (Dyamar), Islamabad, 1983;
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History of Northern Areas of Pakistan (Upto 2000 AD), Lahore, 2001.

Das, Karashni Narayan, Shri Sindh Sapt Nad Sadhubela Teerath Mahatamay [The Importance of the Seven Rivers of Shri Sindh, Sadhubela Teerath, Anthology of passages about the Indus from Hindu scriptures in Sindhi and Sanskrit], Sukkur, 1922.

Deshmukh, P.R., The Indus Civilisation in the Rgveda, Nagpur, c.1954.

Doniger O’Flaherty, Wendy, The Rigveda An Anthology: One hundred and eight hymns, Selected, Translated and Annotated, Harmondsworth, 1981.
 
Erdosy, G., ‘Ethnicity in the Rigveda and its Bearing on the Question of Indo-European Origins, in South Asian Studies, 5, 1989, London, pp.35-47;
ed., The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, Berlin/New York, 1995.

Falk, Harry, ‘Soma I and II’ in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1989 (LV, pp.77-90);
‘The Purpose of Rgvedic Ritual’ in Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 2, Cambridge, Mass., 1997.

Grierson, G.A., Note on the Languages of India, [Census of India: Not printed for publication], Camberley? 1902?

Griffith, Ralph, The Hymns of the Rigveda: Translated with a popular commentary, Benares, 1889.

Hallier, Ulrich W., ‘Petroglyphen in Nordpakistan: Neuentdeckungen an Gilgit und Yasin, in Antike Welt, Mainz, 1991 (XXII, pp.2-20).
 
Hauptmann, Harold, ed., The Indus: Cradle and Crossroads of Civilizations: Pakistan-German Archaeological Research, Islamabad, 1997.

Jettmar, Karl, ed., Cultures of the Hindukush: Selected Papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference Held at Moesgard 1970, Wiesbaden, 1974;
Bolor and Dardistan, Lahore, 1980a;
Bergvölker im Hindukusch und Karakorum, Graz, 1980b (III);
Rock Carvings and Inscriptions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, 1982, Islamabad;
The Religions of the Hindukush. Vol 1: The Religion of the Kafirs: The Pre-Islamic Heritage of Afghan Nuristan, Warminister, 1986;
ed., Antiquities of Northern Pakistan: Reports and Studies, Vol 1: Rock Inscriptions in the Indus Valley, Mainz, 1989;
‘The Art of the Northern Nomads in the Upper Indus Valley’, in South Asian Studies, London, 1991 (VII, pp.1-20);
Beyond the Gorges of the Indus: Archaeology before Excavation, Karachi, 2002.

Jha, Vivekanand, ‘Stages in the History of Untouchables’, in The Indian Historical Review, Biannual Journal of the Indian Council of Historical Research, Delhi, July 1975 (II: 1, pp. 14-31).

Jones, William, Discourses delivered before the Asiatic Society, London, 1821.

Karttunen, K., India in Early Greek Literature, Helsinki, 1989.

Khan, Gulzar Mmd, ‘Excavations at Zarif Karuna’, in Pakistan Archaeology, Karachi, 1973 (IX).

Kipling, Rudyard, The Man Who Would be King: Single Tales and Poems, New York, 1899.

King, Cuthbert, ‘Rock Carvings on the Indus’ in Man: A Monthly Record of Anthropological Science, London, May 1940 (LXXXIII).

Lines, Maureen, Beyond the North-West Frontier, Sparkford, Yeovil, 1988;
The Kalasha People of North-Western Pakistan, Peshawar, 1996?

Loude, Jean-Yves & Viviane Lièvre, Solstice païen: Fetes d’hiver chez les Kalash du Nord-Pakistan, Paris, 1984.

Mahabharata, Mahabharata: Translated into English prose from the original Sanskrit text, tr. Kisari Mohan Ganguli, New Delhi, 1993 [1970];
The Mahabharata, tr. J.A.B. van Buitenen, Chicago, 1973.

Mazhar, Sheikh Mohammad Ahmad, Sanskrit Traced to Arabic, Lahore, 1982.

Monier-Williams, Monier, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Delhi, 1995 [1899].

Morgenstierne, Georg, Report on a Linguistic Mission to North-Western India, Norway, 1932.

Muhammad, Ghulam, ‘Festivals and Folklore of Gilgit’, in Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1907 (I).

Muir, J., Original Sanskrit Texts on the origin and history of the people of India, their religions and institutions, London, 1868-1873.

Max Müller, Friedrich, A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature: so far as it illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans, London, 1859;
India: What Can It Teach Us? A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge, London, 1883;
The Science of Language: founded on lectures delivered at the Royal Institution in 1861 and 1863, London, 1891a (I);
Vedic Hymns: Hymns to the Maruts [Sacred Books of the East], tr., Oxford, 1891b;
Collected Works of Max Müller: III, Anthropological Religion, London, 1903;
‘Lecture VI: The Infinite in Nature, Man, and the Self’ in Collected works of The Right Hon. F. Max Müller: I, Natural Religion: The Gifford Lectures delivered before the University of Glasgow in 1888I from the Collected Works, London, 1907. 

Neumayer, Erwin, Lines on Stone: The Prehistoric Rock Art of India, Delhi, 1993.

Parpola, Asko, ‘The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India’, in Studia Orientalia, Helsinki, 1988 (LXIV, pp.195-302).

Qamar, R. et al, ‘Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in Pakistan’, in American Journal of Human Genetics, New York, 2002, (LXX, pp. 1107-1124).

Rajaram, N.S., ‘Aryan Invasion – History or Politics?’ http://www.archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/aryan-invasion-history.html

Renou, Louis, Religions of Ancient India, London, 1953;
Vedic India, tr. Philip Spratt, Delhi/Varanasi, 1971.

Rivett-Carnac, J.H., ‘Prehistoric Remains in Central India’ in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Part I: History, Literature, &c.), Calcutta, 1879.

Roth, Rudolph, On the Literature and History of the Veda, tr. John Muir, Calcutta, 1880.

Stacul, Giorgio, in East and West, Rome, 1969 (XIX);
Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c.3000 BC – 1400 BC), Rome, 1987.

Stewart, Dugald, Works, The Collected Works, ed. William Hamilton, London, 1854 (IV).

Thieme, Paul, Panini and the Veda: Studies in the Early History of Linguistic Science in India, Allahabad, 1935.

Tsuchiya, Haruko, ‘Ancient Routes in Northern Pakistan; 1996 (II) and 1997 (I)’, in Maurizio Taddei & Giuseppe de Marco, eds, South Asian Archaeology 1997, Rome, 2000, pp.889-902.

Trautmann, Thomas, Aryans and British India, Berkeley, 1997.

Vigne, G.T., Travels in Kashmir, Ladak, Iskardo, the countries adjoining the mountain-course of the Indus, and the Himalaya, North of the Punjab, London, 1842.

Wada, Akiko, Kalasha: Their Life & Tradition, Lahore, 2003.

Wallis, H.W., The Cosmology of the Rigveda, an Essay, London, 1887.

Weber, Albrecht, The History of Indian Literature, tr. John Mann & Theodor Zachariae, London, 1878.

Whalley, W.B., ‘Desert varnish’ in Chemical Sediments and Geomorphology: Precipitates and Residua in the Near-Surface Environment, A.S. Goudie & Kenneth Pye, eds, London, 1983.

Wilson, H.H., tr., Rig-Veda-Sanhita. A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns constituting the First Ashtaka, or Book, of the Rig-Veda, London, 1850.

Witzel, Michael, ‘Tracing the Vedic Dialects’, in Dialectes dans les Littératures Indo-Aryennes, Colette Caillat, ed., Paris, 1989;
& Steve Farmer, ‘Horseplay in Harappa’ in Frontline [Magazine of The Hindu], Chennai, 2000 (XVII:20), www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1723/17231220.htm

Young, Ruth et al, ‘Kalasha and Kho Subsistence Patterns in Chitral’, in South Asian Studies, London, 2000 (XVI).

Zerjal et al, ‘A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights in Central Asia’, in American Journal of Human Genetics, New York, September 2002 (LXXI: 3, pp.466-82).
 
Zimmermann, Francis, The Jungle and the Aroma of Meat s: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine, Berkeley, 1987 [1982].


Chapter Ten


Allchin, Bridget & Raymond, The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan, Cambridge, 1993 [1982].

Allchin, F.R., The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge, 1995.

Ardeleanu-Jansen, Alexandra, ‘Who Fell Into the Well? Digging up a Well in Mohenjo-Daro’, in South Asian Archaeology 1991, eds A.J. Gail and G.J.R. Mevissen, Stuttgart, 1993.

Baloch, Nabi Bakhsh, Musical instruments of the Lower Indus Valley of Sind, Hyderabad, 1966.

Banday, Aijaz A., ‘Metal Objects of Neolithic Kashmir: Origins and Technology’, in The Journal of Central Asian Studies, Srinagar, 1999 (X:1, pp.143-148).

Carter, G.E.L., The Stone Age in Kashmir [Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of Kashmir Series], Amritsar, 1924.

Chowdhury, K.A. & S.S. Ghosh, ‘Plant Remains from Harappa 1946’, in Ancient India: Bulletin of the Archaeological Survey of India, Delhi, January 1951 (VII, pp.3-19).

Cloughley, Brian, A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections [Second Edition: With a New Chapter on the Kargil Issue], Karachi, 2000.

Coll, Steve, ‘Letter from Kashmir. Fault Lines: After the earthquake, some strange new alliances’ in New Yorker, New York, November 21, 2005.

Deshpande, M.N., ed., Indian Archaeology 1966-67 – A Review, New Delhi, 1975.

de Terra, H. & T.T. Paterson, Studies on the Ice Age in India and Associated Human Cultures, Washington, 1939;
de Terra, H., ‘The Megaliths of Bursahom, Kashmir, a New Prehistoric Civilization from India’ in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, September 1942 (LXXXV: 5, pp.483-504).

Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, New York, 1999 [1997].

Ghosh, A., ed., Indian Archaeology 1961-62 – A Review, New Delhi, 1964;
Indian Archaeology 1964-65 – A Review, New Delhi, 1969;
Indian Archaeology 1965-66 – A Review, New Delhi, 1973.

Habib, Irfan, The Indus Civilization: Including Other Copper Age Cultures and History of Language Change till c. 1500 BC, New Delhi, 2002.

Hamidi, Taswir Husain, ‘Sindh Valley Civilization: New Interpretations’ in The Indus River: Biodiversity, Resources, Humankind, Azra Meadows & Peter Meadows, eds, Karachi, 1999.

India, Republic of, [National Security Council Secretariat], From Surprise to Reckoning: The Kargil Review Committee Report, Delhi, 2000.

Joshi, Jagat Pati & Madhu Bala, ‘Manda: A Harappan Site in Jammu and Kashmir’ in Gregory L. Possehl, ed., Harappan Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Warminster, 1982, pp.185-95.

Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, Karachi, 1998.

Khan, Hashmatullah, History of Baltistan: Research Translation, Islamabad, 1987.

Khan, Omar, Producer, www.harappa.com.

Kumar, Virendra, Rape of the Mountains, Kargil: The Untold Story, Delhi, 1999.

Marshall, John, ‘First Light on a Long-Forgotten Civilisation: New Discoveries of an Unknown Prehistoric Past in India’ in Illustrated London News, 20 September 1924 (also 27 September 1924, 4 October 1924);
‘Unveiling the Prehistoric Civilization of India. Discoveries in Sind, the Punjab, and Baluchistan – Cities Older than Abraham’ in Illustrated London News, London, 27 February 1926 (also 6 March 1926, 7 January 1928, 14 January 1928);
ed., Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization: Being an official account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro carried out by the Government of India between the years 1922 and 1927, London, 1931.

Mishra, Madhusudan, The Rgveda in the Indus Inscriptions, Delhi, 2003.

Mitra, Debala, Indian Archaeology 1979-80 – A Review, New Delhi, 1983.

Nath, Gen Rajendra, ed., Musharraf’s War, New Delhi, 2003.

Pande, B.M., ‘Neolithic Hunting Scene on a Stone Slab from Burzahom, Kashmir’, in Asian Perspectives, Hong Kong, 1971 (XIV).  

Peissel, Michel, The Ants’ Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas, London, 1984.

Possehl, Gregory L., ed., Harappan Civilization: A Recent Perspective Second Revised Edition, New Delhi, 1993 [1982];
The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Oxford, 2002.

Richter-Ushanas, Egbert, The Indus Script and the Rg-Veda, Delhi, 1997.

Rizvi, B.R., The Balti: A Scheduled Tribe of Jammu and Kashmir, New Delhi, 1993.

Sharma, Rajeev, Pak Proxy War: A Story of ISI, Bin Laden and Kargil, Delhi, 1999.

Stacul, Giorgio, Prehistoric and Protohistoric Swat, Pakistan (c.3000 BC – 1400 BC), Rome, 1987.

Swami, Praveen, ‘Unknown Heroes of Batalik’, in Frontline [Magazine of The Hindu], Chennai, July 17-30 1999 (XVI:15).

Thapar, B.K., Indian Archaeology 1973-74 – A Review, New Delhi, 1979.

Thapar, Romila, A History of India, Harmondsworth, 1966.

Waslekar, Sundeep [Strategic Foresight Group], The Final Settlement: Restructuring India-Pakistan Relations, , Mumbai, 2005.
 
Weber, Steven A., Plants and Harappan Subsistence: An Example of Stability and Change from Rojdi, New Delhi, 1991.



Chapter Eleven


Alberuni, Alberuni’s India: An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology of India about A.D.1030, tr. Edward C. Sachau, London, 1888.

Aristotle, On the parts of animals, tr. James G. Lennox, Oxford, 2002.

Armstrong, Karen, A Short History of Myth, Edinburgh, 2005.

Bemmann, Martin, ‘Rock Carvings and Inscriptions along the Karakorum Highway’ in South Asian archæology 1991: proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archæologists in Western Europe, eds Adalbert J. Gail and Gerd J.R. Mevissen, Stuttgart, 1993.

Bharatiya Janata Party: www.bjp.org/today/june_0203/june_2_p_25.htm

Buth, Ghulam Mohd., ed., Central Asia and Western Himalaya: A Forgotten Link, Jodhpur, 1986.

Clodd, Edward, Animism, the Seed of Religion, London, 1918.

Connolly, Arthur, A Journey over land from Russia to India, London, 1834.

Cunningham, Alexander, Ladák, Physical, Statistical, and Historical; With Notices of the Surrounding Countries, London, 1854.

Curtis, Gregory, The Cave Painters: Probing the Mysteries of the First Artists, New York, 2006.

de Nebesky-Wojkowitz, René, Oracles and Demons of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography of the Tibetan Protective Deities, Kathmandu, 1996.

de Terra, H. & Paterson, T.T., Studies on the Ice Age in India and Associated Human Cultures, Washington, 1939.

Eliade, Mircea, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, London, 1964.

Enoki, Kazuo, ‘On the Nationality of the Ephthalites’, in Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (Oriental Library), Tokyo, 1959 (XVIII).

Fonia, R.S., ‘Ladakh Corridor to Central Asia: An investigative report of prehistoric cultures’ in The Journal of Central Asian Studies, Srinagar, 1994? (IV, pp.35-41).

Francfort, Henri-Paul, Daniel Klodzinski & Georges Mascle, ‘Archaic Petroglyphs of Ladakh and Zanskar’ in Rock Art in the Old World, Papers presented in Symposium A of the AURA Congress, Darwin, Australia, 1988, ed. Michel Lorblanchet, New Delhi, 1992;
Henri-Paul Francfort et al, eds, The Concept of Shamanism: Uses and Abuses, Budapest 2001.

Francke, A.H., ‘The Eighteen Songs of the Bono-na Festival’ in Indian Antiquary, Bombay, May 1905, pp.93-110;
A History of Western Tibet: one of the unknown empires, London, 1907;
‘The Dards at Khalatse in Western Tibet’ in Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1907 (I);
Ten Ancient Historical Songs from Western Tibet, Bombay, 1909;
tr., Ladvags rGyalrabs. The Chronicles of Ladakh, according to Schlagintweit’s MS [From the Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal], Calcutta, 1910 (VI: 8);
Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Part 1: Personal Narrative, Calcutta, 1914.

Friese, Kai, ‘The Aryan Handshake: Blood and Belonging in India’, Transition 83: An International Review, Durham, North Carolina, 2000 (IX: 3, pp.4-35).

Harvey, Andrew, A Journey in Ladakh, London, 1983.

Jiao, Ben, Socio-economic and Cultural Factors Underlying the Contemporary Revival of Fraternal Polyandry in Tibet [PhD dissertation], Case Western Reserve University, 2001: www.case.edu/affil/tibet/tibetanSociety/documents/BenJiaodissertation.pdf

Kalhana, Kalhana’s Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir, tr. M.A. Stein, London, 1900 (I).

Kantowsky, Detlef & Reinhard Sander, eds, Recent Research on Ladakh: History, Culture, Sociology, Ecology, Köln/London, 1983.

Kargil, Government of, http://kargil.gov.in/tourism/monastery.htm

Karttunen, K., India in Early Greek Literature, Helsinki, 1989.
 
Kipling, Rudyard, Kim, Alan Sandison, ed., London, 1987 [1901].

Knight, E.F., Where Three Empires Meet, London, 1893.

Ladags Melong: Mirror of Ladakh. Ladakh’s own magazine, reflecting on all aspects of Ladakhi life & culture, ed. Sonam Wangchuk, Leh, Ladakh .

McNeill, J.R. & William H McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird’s-Eye View of World History, New York, 2003.

McNeill, William H., ‘Secrets of the Cave Paintings’ in The New York Review of Books, New York, 19 October 2006 (LIII: 16).

Moorcroft, William & George Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir; in Peshawar, Kabul and Kunduz, and Bokhara… from 1819 to 1825, London, 1841.

Muir, J., Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India, London, 1860 (II).

Neumayer, Erwin, Lines on Stone: The Prehistoric Rock Art of India, Delhi, 1993.

Norberg Hodge, Helena, Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh, London, 2000 [1991]; Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh, VHS, 1993. 

Orofino, Giacomella, ‘A Note on Some Tibetan Petroglyphs of the Ladakh Area’, East and West, Rome, 1990 (XL, pp.173-201).

Outlook Traveller: Ladakh The High Country, ed. Kai Friese, New Delhi, May 2006.

Pande, B.M., ‘Neolithic Hunting Scene on a Stone Slab from Burzahom, Kashmir’, in Asian Perspectives, Hong Kong, 1971 (XIV).

Peissel, Michel, The Ants’ Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas, London, 1984.

Peter, Prince of Greece and Denmark, A Study of Polyandry, The Hague, 1963. 

Rao, N Kameswara, ‘Observational Astronomy and Ancient Monuments in India’, in LK Srinivasan & S Nagaraju, eds, Sri Nagabhinandanam: Dr MS Nagaraja Rao Festschrift: Essays on Art, Culture, History, Archaeology, Epigraphy, and Conservation of Cultural Property of India and Neighbouring Countries, Bangalore, 1995, pp.861-895.

Roerich, George N., Trails to Inmost Asia: Five Years of Exploration with the Roerich Central Asian Expedition, Delhi 1996 [1931].

Rushdie, Salman, Shalimar the Clown, London, 2005.

Vahia, M.N. et al, ‘Astronomical interpretation of a Palaeolithic rock carving found at Sopor, Kashmir’, to appear in Puratatva [Journal of Indian Archaeological Society], 2006, www.tifr.res.in/?vahia/papers.html;
et al, ‘Oldest sky-chart with Supernova record’, to appear in Puratatva [Journal of Indian Archaeological Society], 2006, www.tifr.res.in/?vahia/papers.html;
et al, ‘Analysis of the picture found at Bomai in Sopore area by Mumtaz Ahmed Yatoo of Centre for Central Asian Studies, Srinagar, April 2005’ [Unpublished], 2006.

Vernier, Martin, Exploration et documentation des pétroglyphes du Ladakh, 1996-2006, Como, 2007.

Vohra, Rohit, ‘Ethnographic Notes on the Buddhist Dards of Ladakh: The Brog-Pa’ in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Berlin, 1982 (CVII: 1, pp.69-94);
‘History of the Dards and the Concept of Minaro Traditions Among the Buddhist Dards in Ladakh’ in Detlef Kantowsky & Reinhard Sander, eds, Recent Research on Ladakh: History, Culture, Sociology, Ecology, Köln/London, 1983;
An Ethnography: The Buddhist Dards of Ladakh: “Mythic Lore – Household – Alliance System – Kingship”, Ettelbruck, 1989a;
The Religion of the Dards of Ladakh: Investigations into their pre-Buddhist ’Brog-pa Traditions, Ettelbruck, 1989b;
‘Antiquities on the Southern Arteries of the Silk Route: Ethnic Movements and New Discoveries’, in Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya, eds Charles Ramble and Martin Brauen, Zurich, 1990? (pp.386-405).
Rock Art in Ladakh: Collected & Documented by Rohit Vohra A Result of Field Trips to Ladakh in 1979, 1980, 1983 & 1986, Grosbous, 2005.

Xuanzang, Si Yu Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (AD 629) by Samuel Beal, London, 2000 [1884].  


Chapter Twelve


Ahmad, Mohammad Farooq, ‘The Wildlife of the Indus River and Allied Areas’, in The Indus River: Biodiversity, Resources, Humankind, Azra Meadows and Peter Meadows, eds, Karachi, 1999.
 
Allen, Charles, A Mountain in Tibet, London, 1982 [2003];
The Search for Shangri-La: a journey into Tibetan history, London, 1999.

Allwright, Gavin & Atsushi Kanamaru, eds, Mapping the Tibetan World, Tokyo, 2004 [2000].

Ansari, Ishtiaq, ‘Kerigar: Gold Pickers of the Indus’, Journal of Pakistan Archaeologists Forum, Asma Ibrahim and Kaleem Lashari, eds, Karachi, 1993 (2: 1&2, pp.155-166).

Bertsch, Wolfgang, The Currency of Tibet: A Sourcebook for the Study of Tibetan Coins, Paper Money and other Forms of Currency, Dharamsala, 2002.

Burrard, S.G. & H.H. Hayden, A Sketch of the Geography and Geology of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet, Delhi, 1933.

Chan, Victor, Tibet Handbook, Chico, 1994.

China, Ministry of Land and Resources PRC, ‘Communique on Land and Resources of China 2005’: http://www.mlr.gov.cn/pub/mlr/english/t20060726_75403.htm

China Daily: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2007-02/13/content_833286.htm

Clift, Peter D., ‘A brief history of the Indus River’ in The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region, eds Peter D. Clift et al, London, 2002.

Das, Karashni Narayan, Shri Sindh Sapt Nad Sadhubela Teerath Mahatamay [The Importance of the Seven Rivers of Shri Sindh, Sadhubela Teerath, Anthology of passages about the Indus from Hindu scriptures in Sindhi and Sanskrit], Sukkur, 1922.

Dewey, J.F. et al, The Geological Evolution of Tibet: Report of the 1985 Royal Society-Academic Sinica Geotraverse of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, London 1988.

Dorst, Jean, The Migrations of Birds, tr. Constance D. Sherman, London, 1962 [Paris, 1956].

Elliott McClure, H., Migrations and Survival of the Birds of Asia, Bangkok, 1998 [1974].

Fairley, Jean, The Lion River: The Indus, London, 1975.

Hasan, Mubashir, Birds of the Indus, Karachi, 2001.

Hedin, Sven, Trans-Himalaya: Discoveries and Adventures in Tibet, London, 1909.

Herald, Earl S. et al, ‘Blind River-Dolphin: First Side-Swimming Cetacean’, in Science, New York, 12 December 1969 (CLXVI, pp.1408-1410).

Herodotus, The Histories, tr. George Rawlinson, London, 1992 [1910].
 
Jiao, Ben, Socio-economic and Cultural Factors Underlying the Contemporary Revival of Fraternal Polyandry in Tibet [PhD dissertation], Case Western Reserve University, 2001: www.case.edu/affil/tibet/tibetanSociety/documents/BenJiaodissertation.pdf

Jones, Schuyler, Tibetan Nomads: Environment, Pastoral Economy, and Material Culture, Copenhagen/London, 1996.

Meadows, Azra & Peter Meadows, eds, The Indus River: Biodiversity, Resources, Humankind, Karachi, 1999.

Monbiot, George, ‘The freshwater boom is over. Our rivers are starting to run dry’, The Guardian, London, 10 October 2006.

Monier-Williams, Monier, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Delhi, 1995 [1899].

Oppenheimer, Stephen, Out of Eden: The peopling of the world, London, 2003.

Pauwels, Heidi R.M., ‘The Great Goddess and Fulfillment in Love: Radha Seen Through a Sixteenth-Century Lens’, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, 1996.

Peissel, Michel, Tibet The Secret Continent, London, 2002.

Pranavananda, Swami, Exploration in Tibet, Calcutta, 1939.

Sivananda, Swami, A trip of Sacred Kailas-Mansarowar, Rishikesh, 1932.

Tibet, Government of in Exile, ‘State of Tibet’s Environment’, 2 February 1996, http://www.tibet.com/WhitePaper/white9.html;
Tibet Under Communist China: Fifty Years [by the Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration], Dharamsala, 2001.

Tibet Information Network, Mining Tibet: Mineral exploitation in Tibetan areas of the PRC, London, 2002.

Tibet News Digest, http://www.tibetinfonet.net/content/news/44

World Tibet Network News, December 28, 1994, http://www.tibet.ca/en/wtnarchive/1994/12/28_1.html

 

 

 

 



Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

 

 

 
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